The comment of mcgjcn mentioned a name R. R. Gesteland. I research the name in Google and found some interesting resources on cultural differences (like this, and this). In all the works, Norihiko Shimizu’s paper “Today’s Taboos may be gone tomorrow“, Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.51. is a very frequently quoted materials in all MBA courses on International Marketing, and Cross-culture business. It was comparasion between Japan and American. I found many of the points also applies to China.
Cultural Difference between Japanese and American Individual
A Culture of self-expression
A Culture of Self restrain
|Clear expression of Joy and sorrow||Ambiguous of joy and sorrow|
|Unequivocal expression of “Yes/No”.||Equivocal expression of “Yes/No”.|
|Strong Personality||Weak Personality|
|Priority of self-interest||Priority of harmony with others|
Source: Norihiko Shimizu’s paper “Today’s Taboos may be gone tomorrow“, Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.51.
Cultural Differences between Japanese and American Business
|American Business||Japanese Business|
|Game concept: Business is a game in pursuit of profits under the rules of laws and contracts||Mutual trust-oriented business: business is based on trusting relationship among people rather than the rules of game|
|Efficiency-oriented and approximate accuracy simplicity, clarity, and quickness||Highly precision-oriented and perfectionism-high dependency on human awareness|
|Easy layoffs, dismissals of employees, and selling of businesses||Job security|
|Low mutual dependence between employers and employees||High mutual dependence between employers and employees|
|Heavy dependence on machinery and technology, vs. Light dependence on human resources||Heavy dependence on human resources|
This comparision answered many of my questions on effeciency v.s. diversity, why the way of doing business is so different cross the two continents.